### 3.7.155. n-Amazon

A constraint that can be used for modelling the $n$ -Amazon problem. Place $n$ Amazons on a $n$ by $n$ chessboard in such a way that no Amazon attacks another. We say that two columns (respectively two rows) of a chessboard are almost adjacent if and only if the two columns (respectively the two rows) are separated by one single column (respectively one single row). Two Amazons attack each other if at least one of the following conditions holds:

1. They are located on the same column, on the same row or on the same diagonal.

As shown by these conditions, an Amazon combines the movements of a queen and of a knight. FigureΒ 3.7.34 illustrates the movements of an Amazon. The $n$ -Amazon problem has no solution when $n$ is smaller than 10.
We now show how to model the $n$ -Amazon problem with six global constraints. We start from the model that is used for the n-queen problem. We associate to the ${i}^{th}$ column of the chessboard a domain variable ${X}_{i}$ that gives the row number where the corresponding queen is located.
If we combine the constraints of the form $\left(1\beta €i\beta €n-1\right)$ with the three $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ constraints we get the conjunction of constraints $\beta §$ $\beta §$ $\left(1\beta €i\beta €n-1\right)$. This conjunction of three disequalities can be expressed as one single inequality of the form $|{X}_{i}-{X}_{i+1}|>2$ $\left(1\beta €i\beta €n-1\right)$. Furthermore all these inequalities can be combined into one single $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ constraint of the form $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$$\left(n-1,2,\beta ©{X}_{1},{X}_{2},...,{X}_{n}\beta ͺ\right)$.Since we enforce for all pairs of consecutive variables ${X}_{i}$, ${X}_{i+1}$ $\left(1\beta €i\beta €n-1\right)$ the constraint $|{X}_{i}-{X}_{i+1}|>2$, the name $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ seems odd. However the name $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ stands from the situation where the number of inequalities constraints should be minimised. Similarly we get the constraints $|{X}_{2Β·i+1}-{X}_{2Β·i+3}|>2$ $\left(0\beta €i\beta €\beta \frac{n-3}{2}\beta \right)$ and $|{X}_{2Β·i}-{X}_{2Β·i+2}|>2$ $\left(1\beta €i\beta €\beta \frac{n-2}{2}\beta \right)$. Again we obtain two $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ constraints of the form $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$$\left(\beta \frac{n-1}{2}\beta ,2,\beta ©{X}_{1},{X}_{3},...,{X}_{n-1+n\mathrm{mod}2}\beta ͺ\right)$ and $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$$\left(\beta \frac{n-2}{2}\beta ,2,\beta ©{X}_{2},{X}_{4},...,{X}_{n-n\mathrm{mod}2}\beta ͺ\right)$.
Finally, the $\mathrm{\pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi \pi }$ constraint can also be used as a channelling constraint if we want to create an additional variable for each row. This may be for instance the case if we want to have a heuristics for selecting first the column or the row that has the smallest number of possibilities.
FigureΒ 3.7.35 shows the unique solution, modulo symmetries, to the $n$ -Amazon problem for $n=10$. We have the following conjunction of constraints: